Oriented attachment (OA) of synthetic nanocrystals is emerging as an effective means of fabricating low-dimensional nanoscale materials. However, OA relies on energetically favorable nanocrystal facets to grow nanostructured materials. Consequently, nanostructures synthesized through OA are generally limited to a specific crystal facet in their final morphology. We report our discovery that high-pressure compression can induce consolidation of spherical CdSe nanocrystal arrays, leading to unexpected one-dimensional semiconductor nanowires that do not exhibit the typical crystal facet. In particular, in situ high-pressure synchrotron x-ray scattering, optical spectroscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy characterizations indicate that by manipulating the coupling between nanocrystals through external pressure, a reversible change in nanocrystal assemblies and properties can be achieved at modest pressure. When pressure is increased above a threshold, these nanocrystals begin to contact one another and consolidate, irreversibly forming one-dimensional luminescent nanowires. High-fidelity molecular dynamics (MD) methods were used to calculate surface energies ...